Visa policy is one of the most successful harmonized EU policy field. This report shows that European legislation regulates for which countries nationals, for how long, and for which reasons MSs can issue a short-stay visa. Besides this general framework, the analysis of national legislation shows that MSs retain certain capacity to shape visa policy beyond the existing European harmonized framework.
In this paper, we look at differences in how migrants from different skill profiles obtain returns to their education once in their destination societies (France, Spain and the UK). We develop a hypothesis about how migrants with low, mid or high educational credentials differ from natives and test them using PIAAC data (OECD).